Category Archives: Markets and Shows

Au Revoir Annecy!

After a week at Annecy, I will only say that if you’re an animator or work in animation and have a genuine love for all that it is, or even if you just like talking about it all day, then get a few friends, save up, and make it a point to go to Annecy at least once.

I recognise that I make these observations from the privileged position of being able to actually come to the Annecy festival, and there’s no saying that I will be here next year, for cost reasons among others. It’s expensive, and no doubt anyone in the industry – from the most junior of animators to a seasoned executive who just wishes to see what the fuss is all about – would love to come if time and money afford them to.

It’s like a kid who hears and reads about Disneyland all his or her life, but never got a chance to go. And we know there are millions of kids over the world who, sadly, will never experience Disneyland.

The memories that I treasure most would probably be the many conversations I had with strangers, new acquaintances and friends and possibly future business partners about life, love and animation (topic of a future post) – not the business of it, or how projects can be financed, or what territories of pre-sales is able to cover how many percent of a production budget etc. (there will be another time and place for all that).  Instead we talked about our favourite animated films, love of short films, our favourite scores, sound design, music, our inspirations, and what we hope to do in the near future.

The last time I had a similar feeling was at the San Diego Comic Con a few years back. But that was different. Comic Con was mostly a celebration of geek culture, and being at the centre of the show floor was pure, unadulterated joy – like a kid being in a candy store and parents and dentists don’t exist.

Annecy is different. Here, there is a sense that everyone not only loves animation and storytelling and cool art, but also aspires to achieve something quite specific – whether it’s to make a short film, a feature film, work in a great studio, publish a book, open an art exhibit, or even just be recognised for his or her talent.

For every filmmaker that went on stage to present his or her film with thunderous applause, hundreds of other aspiring artists and filmmakers are dreaming of his or her moment some day – maybe not on the Annecy stage, but in some other ways, small and big. It’s the same journey we’re all on, and each hopes to find his or her pot of gold at the end of different rainbows.

Friday came sooner than I had hoped. I spent a good part of my final night at the giant outdoor screening. That night’s movie was How To Train Your Dragon – one of my favourites from last year (including John Powell’s powerful score), which also holds bittersweet memories for me. Nevermind that it was in French.

After the movie it was back to Café Des Arts, where the crowd was the biggest I’ve seen yet (a fire hazard, really). But many of the same faces were there, and it wasn’t long when friends new and a few days old were seated around the usual spot again, beer in hands and chatting away. Some even bought their own beer (much cheaper).

Nearing 2am and it was time for me to hit that dark, eerie gravel road back to my hotel. My airport shuttle leaves in 4 hours and I had barely packed.

And so we said our goodbyes, not exchanging all our names but surely remembering each others’ faces, agreeing to meet at the same pub at next year’s festival. Whether that happens or not is anyone’s guess, but it was a good way for new friends to part, and for me to leave my first Annecy.

Jump here for more pics

Annecy Part 2

Mifa venue – Allée de l’Impérial. Ex-Nazi HQ (apparently)

The main reason I was at Annecy was in fact because there’s a business segment – MIFA, which is a mini-market with a strong European focus. My meeting schedule wasn’t actually that packed as I had wanted to make room for some conference sessions.

In the end though I swapped those for workshops by Disney Animation Studios. I figured rather than hear a bunch of executives talk about ‘issues and trends’ – which tend to be either repetitive or end up being really more about their own projects (believe me I’ve been to plenty of those), it’d be a better deal to hear Disney artists talk about story art, acting in animation, story reels etc. with real examples as they go through their recent films. How often do we get to see THAT?

‘Art of Story’ talk by Disney Animation Studios.

There were of course the required business meetings and buyer pitches, and they went well enough, by and large. But I definitely get the feeling that even the suits are at Annecy because it’s a more relaxed environment, and certainly more scenic and personable than the craziness that are the Cannes markets. Granted the scale of MIFA is a fraction of MIPTV / MIPCOM, but it is ALL animation and most would agree that when it comes to these meetings, quality time is far better than 30 min back-to-back meetings all day long.

Food in Annecy, for the most part, is decent. Except for Quick Burger, the only fast food joint in the area, which was horrible (I passed on the mayonaise). Still, it was a life saver between tight screenings. Food prices were lower than those in Cannes (although the quality doesn’t come close). Waiters and waitresses are also friendlier, although they still take ions to appear for an order.

As for my daily hotel ‘buffet’ breakfast (by that I mean a borderline respectable assortment of flour-based products), by the 5th day I had developed a vengeful resentment towards croissants. I wanted to make the crossaint eat itself so it knows how bland it tastes, then drowned it in the weak foamy coffee I’ve been drinking for what seemed an eternity.

Back to the festival (cos that’s where most of the fun is) – there is a conspicuous absence of Asian short films in the official selection. Why that is the case I don’t really know. I’ve seen plenty of Japanese and Korean shorts over the years that have blown my mind, and even China has some amazing talents coming through. I’ve seen their commercial work and they’re not only great artistically but just in terms of sensibilities they would surely add a richness to a festival full of great films but nonetheless are dominated by European fare.

My second favourite Scotsman (after Kenny Dalglish), Ken Anderson, told me he has a friend in the Annecy jury and she told him plainly that the entries from Singapore just did not cut it. I don’t know many filmmakers locally that are doing independent animation work, so it’s likely they’re mostly students’ work. It’s a rather sad state of affairs that many people less in touch with the industry may not care much for – that much, much more need to be done to help develop the craft rather than the business of it all – and it’s definitely an ailment that will exacerbate the chronic lack of strong animation directors as well as writers in Singapore.

To be concluded.

Bonjour Annecy!

It’s been a while since I’ve gone somewhere new. While France is not exactly ‘new’ as a destination, the only collective experience I have of the country are horror transits at Charles de Gaulle airport and labourous days on end in Cannes at one of the TV markets.

It’s strange then to descend on a little town called Annecy by the southeast of France, 30 minutes from Geneva airport, on a lazy Sunday summer afternoon.

Here’s the venue for the fabled Annecy International Animation Film Festival, now into its 51st year.

Festivals, especially one that’s half way round the world, could understandably be perceived as luxury events to attend by animation companies more concerned with looming deadlines then independent, art-house films and general merry-making amongst artists and animators.

Truth be told, we are not (and no commercial entity is) in the business of making short films for festivals. Short films don’t make money. And companies need to make money to exist.

But I think it comes down to the overarching aspirations of any given studio. Now, this would typically be either to produce great TV shows that sell the world over, or make films that are box office successes, which in turn translate to merchandise from lunchboxes to video games to bed sheets and pyjamas.

But there would be studios – and studios are invariably a reflection of their founders and directors’ philosophies and personalities – that aspire to higher levels of personal and creative expression; to not simply tell stories (because there will always be a need for that, whether it’s on TV or film) but tell them well and from the heart, and to ensure that creative enterprise permeates through the the studio, commercial realities notwithstanding.

Animation is merely an art form, but it is one with such limitless cinematic possibilities that to be a great animation studio must be to possess the tenacity and commitment to help its artists push those creative boundaries and nurture talents to become great storytellers.

I think that is what Annecy is about. It does not celebrate the commercial success of animation (frankly, there’s no need to), but an art form that is at once infinitely varied yet universal in its language to tell any possible kind of story. And of course, it celebrates the filmmakers.

I attended mostly the short films in competition screenings at the main theatre venue Bonlieu, hoping to take in as eclectic an experience as I could.  I don’t think one really comes out of these screenings with a definite mood.  Some films are deeply personal, some are more commercial. Some are hilarious, and some make you want to put a bullet in your head. Some stir your heart and awakens the soul. Some boggle the mind, and some simply f*** with it. And then there are those that sort of straddle across a few of the above categories.

Maybe that’s why the pub is usually the best place to go after a screening. There are several pubs in the area that I was told are the usual drinking holes. There’s the Captain’s Pub, where the brits frequent. There’s the Irish Pub, where…well, the Irish, along with other folksy suit types go to (I was there on Wed with the Cartoon Network and Disney guys and saw someone tried to light his fart outside the pub). Then there’s the American Bar or Scotch Bar where the Americans hang out. I told my friend Alex (who’s from Israel) the town needs an Asian bar. But since the Asian population is so small, he suggested combining Asian and Jews. It could well be the bar with the most gang fights.

But the place that the animators and creative types frequent above all others must surely be Café Des Arts, a quaint little joint nestled in a cul-de-sac at the end of a little bridge across the canal. It’s packed to the brim on just about every night during the festival. It’s also the one where animators and artists mingle like they all graduated from one big class, draw and doodle on their sketch books half drunk, and talk about the films they saw that day.

For an executive like me who’s used to suits who are usually  more interested in how much financing we can bring to a project or how cheap our studio can produce something or what shows we could give them to add to their distribution catalogue (and to be fair they’re just doing they’re job), it’s such a refreshing and invigorating feeling to be among young people whose lives, for the most part, revolve plainly around bringing drawings to life on paper (or in a computer), and are so hungry for inspiration and to improve their craft they’d listen to anyone who has something to say about their work or just chat about animation over a few rounds.

The only part I didn’t look forward to after drinks was the dark and eerie gravel road I had to take on the way back to the hotel. There’s been cases of mugging during the festival over the last few years I was told and  I definitely looked over my shoulders more than once every night as I took the long road. If things got rough I was ready to either run or act like a I’m having a mental meltdown. Jumping into the canal in that temperature wasn’t an option, unfortunately.

Back to the short film screenings – being in the theatre is an experience in itself, if somewhat bizarre for the uninitiated. They’re almost always full, and the crowd boisterous before the films commence. There’s the time-honoured ‘competition’ of hurling paper planes at the screen, and every plane that reaches its destination (which is near impossible) always receives a generous round of applause and cheers. This year there was apparently a new quirk – audiences making bubbling noises just as the lights go down which makes the theatre feels like being inside an aquarium with invisible goldfishes.

It’s interesting how some of the short films don’t really reflect the mood of the audience, as you would expect in a typical theatre screening. No matter how dark or depressing certain films are (and there were plenty of those), the crowd is always hopelessly jovial – clapping to music, relentless with their paper planes and even singing. One suspects they’re just happy to be there, among their friends and peers, reveling in the whole tribal spirit and just watching animation – which is probably the one thing that defines most of their lives.; a higher purpose that they live for and a craft that they are striving to perfect.

But it’s also just a really, really fun experience. If I – perhaps an unrequited artist disguised as an animation executive who struggles ever so often to reconcile the apparent conflicts between commerce and art, and could in fact have developed a dangerous cynicism that veils my perception of the industry  – can emerge from it all with a somewhat renewed vision, then as an animator, you‘re just gonna have the time of your life.

To be Continued…

MIPTV 2011

Off we go to another trip to the south of France – that beautiful, if somewhat tiresome town called Cannes. It’s April, which means its MIPTV.

It felt like yesterday when I was blogging about MIPCOM, which was 6 months ago.  What’s gotten annoying about MIPTV is that it’s literally just over a month after Kidscreen in New York. Seriously, how many of these markets do we need?

It’s especially rough for producers based in Asia like us. 36 hours on a plane (to and fro) including layovers is time you don’t get back. I do empathize with our Australian colleagues, who probably travel the furthest from down under to reach Cannes.

Back to MIPTV. One thing good about this year’s market is that it was shortened by a day. Usually the market lasts 5 days (Mon-Fri). This year, it ends on Thursday. Given as we typically leave a day earlier, that means it’s a smash and grab, quick 3-night stay before we jet back home.

It’s a nice thought, but not after you think about the time and money spent just to be able to walk through the main door of the Palais with that MIPTV badge around your neck.

It’s become a cliché to say that the market is ‘quieter this time’. Yet somehow each year the participant numbers released by ReedMidem (the organizer) show more people are at MIP, regardless of how slow traffic seemed to be on the show floor. Well, this year Reed actually said the number of participants was the same as last year. I guess attendance must have fallen.

I think I really need an extended stay in Europe, maybe a detour to Paris or Milan or Prague or Madrid, to erase this muted contempt I have for coming all the way here. Eleven times in Cannes and I’ve never gone anywhere else after the market except back home.

As always, two things in Cannes that make it almost worthwhile:

1)      Catching up with friends and making new contacts and just talking about the business with different people other than my colleagues. It’s amazing how obvious it is sometimes to tell apart those who are truly passionate about the business that you literally feel the kid inside them struggling to break free, and those who see it plainly as a business. There’s nothing inherently wrong with either, and we obviously need both, but one does get reminded of the reasons why we do this. With each passing year in the industry, I find myself becoming a bit more reflective, and occasionally flirt with the philosophy side of this thing called making cartoons. If it takes coming to Cannes a couple of times a year to get me in that mood, I’m cool with it.

2)   The Riveria weather. If Singapore’s like that all year round, I’ll happily report for reserve army training.

Same apartment as last year.

View from balcony. Crisp morning air.

Every year someone got something made in Singapore…

Singapore Pavilion

Singapore and Malaysia Pavilions separated by the Red Sea.

10 bloody Euros for this feast in between meetings.

Choon Meng has a more evolved taste for French food than I do.

Breakfast at the pastry shop below the apartment.

Embarrassingly early for our dinner meeting.

It was hotter than it looks. The weather – not the suit / shades combo.

Choon Meng calling to check why his private yacht is late.

Not quite Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind.

Choon Meng’s choice of travel literature. You know – light, easy-reading stuff.

Munich airport on transit. Never seen a barber shop in an airport before. A cut above the rest, clearly.

Best thing about German airports – Bavarian lager. Noyce.

ATF 2010

The Asia Television Forum is the last ‘major’ international content market of the year.  It feels like an after party of MIPCOM, which was just under two months ago.

Taking up two halls of the Suntec Convention Centre, it’s not a big footprint in terms real estate, and quite frankly the traffic’s been pretty low for the last two years. I can’t imagine the statistic increasing this year, once the organiser releases the attendee numbers (even though I wouldn’t be surprised if somehow they did ‘go up’). I’ve been at the last seven ATFs, and this is certainly the quietest one I’ve seen.

Being held in Singapore, naturally we try to have some sort of a presence. This means taking up a ‘stall space’ under the Singapore Pavilion. It’s a nice setup this year, although for all practical purposes, not very conducive for meetings. We felt like salesmen at a cosmetic booth most of the time.

ATF is largely recognised as an ‘Asia-centric’ market, where buyers tend to come from the region, but there is still a fair amount of international presence. I suppose there are worse places to visit than Singapore for a last business trip of the year.

The generally lighter traffic means we tend to have fewer meetings than the usual overseas markets. Or maybe because it’s held on ‘home ground’, we take it a little easier, and really just try to meet the key people and spend more time talking instead of having back-to-back 30-minute ‘speed dating’ sessions.

Personally, I find ATF is one too many market for the year. With the traffic being so light, it only serves to strengthen that belief. Either the organiser seriously look at a revamp or ways to bring in the buyers and exhibitors, it’s hard to see numbers improving as long the economy continues to tread water.

There are larger macro-factors involved as well, with Asia being such a fragmented market and license fees looking like pocket change that one hopes adds up to something decent. As such some may feel ATF isn’t worth attending, since most of the buyers do show up at the MIPs anyway.

At the same time, every dollar of license fee counts in this business these days, so a sale is still a sale – even if it’s one that puts just a touch of icing on another tough year in this wonderful, frustrating, dysfunctional and bizarre industry that is TV production.

See you at ATF 2011 I guess.


It’s a funny feeling in the stomach when talking about food in Cannes. Let’s get this straight – food here, for the most part, is always good if not fantastic. Walk into any self-respecting restaurants (complete with rude waiters), and chances are you’ll have a great meal – and a slightly charred wallet. A dinner could easily set you back 40-50 euros (with dessert and maybe a glass of wine, or a bottle of sparkling water), while a decent working lunch tend to hover around 25-30 euros at least. There are cheaper options that are not necessarily terrible, but still it’s a far, far cry from the S$5 lunch we are used to back home on a daily basis.

But it’s pointless to compare food prices here. Frankly I’d pay top dollar for some decent Chinese food in Cannes, and there really isn’t any. There’s maybe like, one restaurant that serves up some decent Chinese fare, but it’s nothing that’d blow the mind of a born and bred Singaporean Chinese brought up on old-school Tze Cha and authentic Hong Kong dim sum.

What you end up having for meals is mostly standard western fare, and the unavoidable pastas and pizzas. Again, they are usually very good, but still – it ain’t the same as home food. Too much gluten, I reckon.

What I do really appreciate are the morning breakfasts, sitting in a little cafe or on the street in the crisp morning air, chomping on sumptuous pastries and perfectly baked croissants, and washing it all down with freshly squeezed OJ and a satisfying cup of coffee that kicks you in for the day ahead. Breakfast is always my favourite part of the day here.

Many Asians I know at the market always bring along instant cup noodles. Some even have them as meals religiously, not being used to western food. I’ve never done that, only because I’ve stopped eating instant noodles for years (it’s poison, people!). When push comes to shove, there’s always the Golden Arches to fall back on. It’s still the quickest and cheapest ticket around for a meal, and you always know what you’re getting.

And it’s true what Vincent says in Pulp Fiction – the French dip their fries in mayonnaise instead of ketchup.


The thing about MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) or MOC (Memorandum of Cooperation) or LOI (Letter of Intent) signing ceremonies are that people usually show up more for the FAD (Food and Drinks).

Not unlike wedding ceremonies, but I might be a bit cynical there.

Most parties at MIPCOM (at least the ones thrown by the MDA) pretty much have one of these photo ops where deals are announced and smiles are flashed incessantly for the cameras, with the hope that some of those pictures make their way to the trade journals and market dailies the morning after (at least for the publicists’ sake).

These scenes are probably more prevalent at parties thrown by government organisations or funding bodies, given the obvious need to show that their funding and support are showing results in the form of multi-million dollar deals.

The food was pretty good this time, but I didn’t have any bites before the signing in the fear that any leftovers between my teeth could show up in the trade magazine pictures. My fear was totally unfounded, as there was apparently little coverage on the signings, much less any pictures. Well, at least the handful of readers of this blog can get a taste of what went on.

Truth is, the whole thing was quite uncomfortable for me – sitting there, signing ‘deals’ and smiling for the cameras, knowing full-well that you stand between a hundred-odd people and their free food and alcoholic beverages.

Besides, anyone in the industry knows that these photo ops are little more than a chance to get the company a few minutes under the spotlight, and the real work starts later on with sober heads working through financials, deal terms, budgets, schedules and production chaos before even a frame of animation is seen on screen a couple of years (or longer) down the road, and hopefully everyone sees a bit of profit before it’s all over.

But all that can wait when alcohol’s free flow…






MIPCOM 2010 Pt.2

Sunday was pretty rough, given that both Jeong and I had about an hour’s sleep the day before. And Monday morning started at 5am, thanks to the body clock.

It’s a funny feeling on day 1 at the market. You kinda know what to expect, but at the same time – not really. We set off this time with some specific goals in mind, and I think it gave the whole ‘mission’ a bit more focus. There’s the usual pitching and taking pitches of course, but we were looking for certain types of projects, and it drove our approach towards most meetings.

And MIPCOM is ALL about meetings. 20-30 minutes sessions, back-to-back mostly, with either lunch meetings or quick bites in between, from morning till evening and sometimes beyond. Jeong and I tried to cover for each other as needed, since it’s common that meetings overrun or overlap. After so many years, at least we know where the booths are, so running from one meeting to another, sometimes on different floors, usually takes between a couple of minutes at most.  It’s not physically that demanding, but mentally it really wears you down. Time flies though, and before long we’re walking out of the Palais with heavy steps, either heading back to the apartment to drop off out bags or to find some dinner.

In a funny way, attending these markets, often twice a year, gives you an indication of how old you’re getting. Sure, we’re still almost a couple of decades younger than a lot of the people zipping around the market grounds, but the days of hitting the lounges or bars for drinks and stumbling back to the apartment with a buzzing head are clearly over (well, not every night at least). These days, as it is back home, sometimes a nice, satisfying dinner with friends after a hard day’s work is the best tonic.

Day 2 beckons.

MIPCOM 2010 Pt.1

We came, we got stuck in London for a night because we missed our connection, we survived two of the reportedly worst airports in Europe in a day, we soldiered through 4 days of back-to-back meetings, and we made it home to tell the tale.

MIPCOM started early in October this year. Choon Meng was preoccupied with the slight matter of a second baby, hence it was left to me and Jeong to take this one – my 10th or 11th time in Cannes (I don’t really know for sure anymore).

When our flight from Changi took off almost 45 minutes late, I had a sneaky feeling it’s going to be a tricky transit. We were connecting through Heathrow in the evening, and eventually got in over an hour late. Our fears were founded when just before disembarking, our names were called out over the PA. We were to approach the ground staff, who subsequently told us with no pity at all that we had zero chance of catching our connecting flight to Nice.

So it was night at a airport hotel on a wet and chilly London night. We were more concerned about booking an early flight to Paris, and then on to Nice the next day, where we’ve got a pretty full schedule of meetings lined up already. Fortunately, we were able to make the bookings. Unfortunately, it meant 3 hours’ sleep as we had to be up at 4am to catch the first bus into Heathrow. We barely slept an hour. It didn’t help that the bathroom’s toilet flush didn’t work.

Scrambling to book the first flight into Paris and then Nice.

Waiting for fish and chips. What else we gonna have in London?

We got into Heathrow at 5.15am, seriously zonked out by now. Caught a flight to Paris, laboured through the meat market that is the Charles de Gaulle airport (voted worst in Europe), then on to Nice.

Premier Inn. Not so premier toilet flush.

4.45am bus into Heathrow after one hour’s sleep. Delightful.

Charles de Gaulle airport

Finally, we arrived in Cannes at 1pm, checked into our apartment, dropped off our bags, and off to our first meeting.

End of Day 1. Knackered.

Look out for Part 2.

Tokyo Anime Fair 2010

Tokyo Big Sight. No, it doesn’t transform into a giant robot.

March 25-28, Tokyo, Japan.

Every March for the last 3 years the good folks from the Tokyo Anime Fair Organising Committee sends us a nice little package with an invite to attend the annual event in Tokyo. Provided we could scramble a flight ticket (which we’ve been able to do so, fortunately), they’d provide a bed and a bathroom.

Any reason to drop in on the land of anime, robot ghosts and wired dreams is always one to savour. So off I went.

From Thur to Friday, it’s Business Day, where supposedly Business People attend the fair to do Business. I’m not sure how much business gets done, really. Like so much of Japan, whether it’s amongst the lights of Shibuya, the streets of Shinjuku or the winding alleys of Kyoto, it always feel like there’s a world that exists for the Japanese and another for foreigners. One feels a little bit of that, even at an ‘international’ event like TAF.

Business Days are when one gets to see the really cool stuff – the ‘What’s Coming’ and other hot sellers. On Public Days (Sat-Sun), where the fair is opened to otakus and anime-mad crowds in general, a lot of the newer stuff are taken down, and the focus shifts to what’s on the market right now plus the customary appearances of Seiyus (anime voice actors/actresses) and other celebrity-types. I was told that some executives in business suits on Thur and Fri have to switch to mascot costumes on Sat and Sun. Talk about work getting under your skin.

Business Day

Business Day

Public Day on Saturday

Japan isn’t really a market for us. Neither do we have any real business going on there, even though we’ve met and continue to have talks with a number of Japanese companies and individuals on possible future collaboration. The sheer talent and ideas there are too ridiculous to ignore.

It’s pretty much a world of its own, the Japanese anime industry. A cultural and commercial phenomenon that for the most part is desperate to expand overseas, beyond its increasingly limited domestic market. Yet anime itself is a product that speaks intrinsically to Japanese consumers, hence its unique value. I’ve been told Japanese creators and directors are more concerned with how their works are viewed by their own people, more so than commercial success per se, not least outside of Japan. It’s a situation that reeks of business irony while  Japanese animation itself continues to push creative and technical boundaries at breakneck speed.

Over the two and a half days at the Tokyo Big Sight, I met with some friends and partners, got a bit of business done, and had a walkabout the floor – mainly to grab anime flyers to bring back to the studio to add to our reference library. And no, it isn’t about the show girls at all. Not. At. All.

And of course there’s the animation on show. The two that blew my mind this year were Madhouse’s new insane racing anime Redline (which I caught a glimpse of 2 years ago when I visited the studio. Can’t wait to see the feature at Annecy, where it is competing) and Toei’s breathtaking CG incarnation of Space Pirate Captain Harlock (full-length feature due 2012). Two different projects – one 2D and the other 3D – that prove that when it comes to technical wizardry and pure visual direction, the best in Japanese animation stand a world apart from everyone else.

For the second year running, China has a rather curious presence at TAF. The difference this year was that they hired models (Japanese, obviously) to don cheongsams, which undoubtedly helped attract foot traffic (including that of this intrepid Singaporean). What I can’t get my head around is the Chinese use of the phrase ‘Chinese Anime’, which besides being an obvious paradox, also glosses over the inherent contradictions between anime as liberal genre content and the Chinese’s well-documented resistance towards any foreign content that goes against the grain of its cultural and historical ideologies.

Despite that, it is apparent that anime companies see China as a key market to penetrate. How they can do it is another matter. The business realities of working in China aside, the creative, philosophical and social differences between the two countries and cultures are glaring when it comes to creating popular media content. Where the Chinese are huge on cultural glorification and historical reverence with an underlying socialist stance, the Japanese seems more in tune with the individual human condition, raw emotion, real desire and fantasy. After all, anime, like manga, is so often an outlet for societal repressions and wish fulfillment at all levels – from the young to the old; from the housewife to the office worker. Still, never underestimate the Japanese – or the Chinese for that matter, to pull of the unexpected (they did save the world in 2012 – Spoiler!).